Characteristics and design features of

Проектирование (from the Latin projectus, which means “thrown forward”) is the process of writing required to create under specified conditions of non-existing object based on the primary description of this object by its detail, the additions, calculations and optimization.

The object description can be set in different ways: in the form of text, algorithm, program, drawing, table, or, more often, combined in traditional paper or electronic form.

Thus, главной особенностью design is to work with another не existing объектом. This is the difference between design from modeling, where the object cannot exist.

Design can be viewed from one side as final phase of research (Analysis) and as the initial phase of production (Programming).

Design features:

  • Итерационность проектирования. Since the object is non-existent (symbolic, ideal, virtual), it is not possible to describe it directly without further corrections and clarifications. At each iteration round, the description becomes more complete and accurate

  • Коллективный характер. The design of modern technical objects requires the participation of specialists in different disciplines. For example, in the creation of the aircraft includes mechanical engineers, materials scientists, electronics engineers, programmers, designers, etc. on the other hand the objects are complex and even with the participation of groups of specialists in their design take years even with today’s high-performance computers. “The airframe can be created in 3-4 years, the engine for 9 years, good complex electronic equipment, too, for 8-9 years” (L. Berestov, Deputy chief of the Flight research Institute).

  • Многовариантность решений. The harsh conditions of competitive struggle in conditions of globalization require effective, often the original design decisions. So trying out different options and approaches, and this causes multiplicity.

  • Многовариантность методов. There are different algorithms and ways of solving the same design problem, have inherent limitations, accuracy, advantages and disadvantages. Accordingly, the implementation of different methods can be carried out via the flexible software and information support.

  • Use блочно-hierarchical подхода (BIP). The essence of the PUTT - first, the object is considered as a “black box” with unknown internal структурой; then determined the structure of 1st level of detail and the relationships between блоками; then details the units of the 1st level and there are blocks of 2nd level and so on until the simple blocks of the lowest level with a transparent structure. The advantage of BIP is the ability to parallelize the work among many specialists who do different блоками; drawback - the complexity of “docking” solutions, because of the designed objects to make them virtual.

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